Office of the Press Secretary
(Los Angeles, California)

For Immediate Release January 21, 2000


 California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California

11:00 A.M. PST

          THE PRESIDENT:  Thank you so much.  Dr. Moore, President
Baltimore; to the faculty and students at Cal Tech, and to people
involved in NASA's JPL out here.  I want to thank Representatives
Dreier, Baca and Millender-McDonald for coming with me today, and for
the work they do in your behalf back in Washington.  I want to thank
three members of our Science and Technology team for being here -- my
Science Advisor Neal Lane; Dr. Rita Colwell, the NSF Director; and my
good friend, the Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, who has done a
great job with our national labs to keep them being innovators in fields
from computational science to environmental technology.

          One person who would have liked to have been here today and I
can tell you thinks that he would be a better representative of our
administration on this topic is the Vice President.  When we took office
together, the fact that I was challenged scientifically and
technologically was standing joke.  (Laughter.)  And he wants all of you
to know that he's campaigning all over the country with a Palm 7 on his
hip.  (Laughter.)

          He wants you to know that he loves science and technology so
much, he's not even angry that Cal Tech beat out Harvard for top spot in
the U.S. News rankings this year.  (Laughter.)  I think it has something
to do with the relative electoral votes of California and Massachusetts.

          But before I came out here I told Dr. Moore and Dr. Baltimore
that it was a real thrill for me to meet Dr. Moore, that even I knew
what Moore's Law was; and that before the Vice President became
otherwise occupied, we used to have weekly lunches and I'd talked to him
about politics and he'd give me lectures about climate change.

          But we once got into this hilarious conversation about the
practical applications of Moore's Law, like it explains why every cable
network can double the number of talk shows every year that no one wants
to listen to.  (Laughter.)  And so it's a real thrill for me to be here.

          Actually, I come with some trepidation.  An eight-year-old
child met me at the airport, and she and her brother came with their
father, who is a friend of mine, and she brought me a letter from her
third grade class.  And the letter had all these questions:  What was
your favorite book when you were in the third grade?  What did you
collect then?  What do you collect now?  And one of the questions was,
are you ever nervous when you're speaking before large audiences.

          And the answer -- and I was writing all these answers so we
could type up a letter -- I said, not usually.  But I mean, I'm sort of
nervous here today.  (Laughter.)  And I told somebody I was nervous, one
of the wags back at the White House with a sense of humor, and he said,
well, you know the Einstein millennial story, don't you -- trying to
help me get unnervous.  (Laughter.)  I said, so I said, no -- you always
learn to be patient in the face of other people's jokes.  It's one of
the great social skills that an American can develop.  (Laughter.)

          So I said, no.  And he said, well, God decides to give America
a millennial gift, and the gift is to send Einstein back to Earth for a
few days to talk to ordinary folks, because he was the greatest brain of
the last millennium.  And they have the first meeting in a nice little
hall like this.  And it's absolutely packed, and these three big, burly
guys push their way to the front, shoving everyone else to the side.  So
Einstein politely takes them first and he says to the first guy, well,
what's your IQ, young man?  And he said 240.  He said wonderful, let's
talk about how I thought up the theory of relativity.  And they have a
terrific conversation.

          The second guy, he says, what's your IQ?  He said, 140.  He
said, let's talk about globalization and its impact on climate change.
And they had a terrific conversation.  And the third guy kind of hung
his head, and he said, what's your IQ?  And he said, 40.  And Einstein
said, oh, don't worry.  You can always go into politics.  (Laughter.)

          I want you to know, though, in preparation for this day I've
been spending a lot of time trying to get in touch with my inner nerd.
(Laughter and applause.)  And my wife helped me, because she's been
having these Millennium Lectures at the White House to discuss big
things.  And the other night, she had Vince Cerf, who was one of the
founders of the Internet, and Eric Lander, who's helped to develop many
of the tools of modern genome research.  And that really got me
thinking, and I want to say some more serious things about that in a
moment.  And then my staff challenged me to actually order Christmas
gifts over the Internet.  And I did that.  And while doing that, I
learned that with just a click of a mouse, I could actually order -- and
I did this, I'm embarrassed to say -- I ordered Arkansas smoked ham and
sausage delivered to my door.  (Laughter.)  So I think the 21st century
has more for me than I had originally thought.  (Laughter.)

          As all of you know, Albert Einstein spent a lot of time here
at Cal Tech in the 1930s.  And three weeks ago, Time Magazine crowned
him the Person of the Century.  The fact that he won this honor over
people like Franklin Roosevelt and Mohandas Gandhi is not only an
incredible testament to the quantum leaps in knowledge that he achieved
for all humanity, but also for the 20th century's earth-shaking advances
in science and technology.

          Just as an aside, I'd like to say because we're here at Cal
Tech, Einstein's contributions remind us of how greatly American science
and technology and, therefore, American society have benefitted and
continue to benefit from the extraordinary gifts of scientists and
engineers who are born in other countries, and we should continue to
welcome them to our shores.  (Applause.)

          But the reason so many of you live, work and study here is
that there are so many more questions yet to be answered:  How does the
brain actually produce the phenomenon of consciousness?  How do we
translate insights from neuroscience into more productive learning
environments for all our children?  Why do we age -- the question I
ponder more and more these days.  (Laughter.)  I looked at a picture of
myself when I was inaugurated the first time the other day, and it
scared me to death.  (Laughter.)  And so I wonder, is this
preprogrammed, or wear and tear?  Are we alone in the universe?  What
causes gamma ray bursts?  What makes up the missing mass of the
universe?  What's in those black holes, anyway?  And maybe the biggest
question of all:  How in the wide world can you add $3 billion in market
capitalization simply by adding .com to the end of a name?  (Laughter.)

          You will find the answers to the serious questions I posed and
to many others.  It was this brilliant Cal Tech community that first
located genes on chromosomes and unlocked the secrets of chemical bonds
and quarks.  You were the propulsive force behind jet flight and built
America's first satellites.  You made it possible for us to manufacture
microchips of ever-increasing complexity and gave us our first guided
tour on the surface of Mars.  With your new gravitational wave
observatory, you will open an entirely new window on the mysteries of
the universe, observing the propagating ripples which Einstein predicted
84 years ago.

          Today, I came here to thank you for all you're doing to
advance the march of human knowledge and to announce what we intend to
do to accelerate that march by greatly increasing our national
investments in science and technology.

          The budget I will submit to Congress in just a few days will
include a $2.8 billion increase in our 21st century research fund.  This
will support a $1 billion increase in biomedical research for the
National Institutes of Health; $675 million, which is double the
previous largest dollar increase for the National Science Foundation in
its entire 50-year history; and major funding increases in areas from
information technology to space exploration to the development of
cleaner sources of energy.

          This budget makes research at our nation's universities a top
priority, with an increase in funding of more than $1 billion.
University-based research provides the kind of fundamental insights that
are most important in any new technology or treatment.  It helps to
produce the next generation of scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs.
And we intend to give university-based research a major lift.

          The budget supports increases not only in biomedical research,
but also in all scientific and engineering fields.  As you know,
advances in one field are often dependent on breakthroughs in other
disciplines.  For example, advances in computer science are helping us
to develop drugs more rapidly, and to move from sequencing the human
genome to better understanding the functions of individual genes.

          My budget supports a major new national nanotechnology
initiative worth $500 million.  Cal Tech is no stranger to the idea of
nanotechnology, the ability to manipulate matter at the atomic and
molecular level.  Over 40 years ago, Cal Tech's own Richard Symonds
asked, what would happen if we could arrange the atoms one by one the
way we want them?  Well, you can see one example of this in this sign
behind me, that Dr. Lane furnished for Cal Tech to hang as the backdrop
for this speech.  It's the Western hemisphere in gold atoms.  But I
think you will find more enduring uses for nanotechnology.

          Just imagine, materials with 10 times the strength of steel
and only a fraction of the weight; shrinking all the information at the
Library of Congress into a device the size of a sugar cube; detecting
cancerous tumors that are only a few cells in size.  Some of these
research goals will take 20 or more years to achieve.  But that is why
-- precisely why -- as Dr. Baltimore said, there is such a critical role
for the federal government.

          As I announced yesterday, this budget also includes an
historic initiative to make higher education more affordable.  I am well
aware of the fact that I would not have become President of the United
States without loans and grants and jobs that helped me get through
college and law school; and that more and more, given the cost of higher
education, a higher and higher percentage of our students need more of
all those things.  This has been a virtual obsession for me ever since I
became President.  I was determined to leave office saying we had opened
the doors of college to all Americans.

          We have come a long way, by changing the student loan program
to make it less expensive and to give young people more options for
paying off their loans, including as a percentage of their income when
they leave school.  We've increased the number of work-study grants from
$700,000 to $1 million.  We've dramatically increased the Pell Grant
program, and the HOPE Scholarship tax credit and the Lifetime Learning
tax credits we adopted in 1997 last year alone had almost 5 million
beneficiaries in institutions of higher education in the United States.

          Yesterday, I proposed that, for the first time, we make
college tuition tax deductible, and that we do it in a way that would
benefit even more people on more modest incomes so that they could get
the same 28-percent benefit, even if they're in the 15-percent tax
category.  I think this is very important.  (Applause.)

          The budget contains another increase in Pell grants, special
initiatives to help minority students get into science and engineering
and graduate.  (Applause.)  Special efforts -- that is basically a test
program for several thousand students now -- to try to do something
about the extraordinarily high dropout rate from college.

          Now, over two-thirds of the high school graduates are actually
going to go into college this year.  That's an increase of over 10
percent in the last seven years.  That's quite a large increase in a
short time.  But the dropout rate has increased correspondingly.  We
want to know why.  Is it for financial reasons?  Is it because people
weren't prepared?  Could they all be just idiosyncratic personal
reasons?  And we intend to do everything we can with a very large test
group to see what we can do to turn this situation around.

          And, finally, we're going to double the size of our Gear-Up
program to 1.4 million young people.  That's the program where people in
universities and college all across America mentor middle-school kids
who are at risk to try to help them develop the skills and the belief
that they can go to college, and simultaneously to tell them and their
parents exactly what they can expect in the way of aid under current law
if they do go, so they will know.  Many people still don't know that the
barriers to their going on to college have been removed.  So I hope you
will also support this part of our budget, because the young people of
our country and their families need it.

          In addition to announcing our new research budget and our
efforts to make colleges more affordable, I'd like to try to achieve one
other mission here today.  First, I want to take a step back to
acknowledge that we have not done a good enough job in helping all
Americans to understand why we need very, very large investment in
science and technology.

          Far too many of our citizens think science is something done
by men and women who are in white lab coats behind closed doors that
somehow leads to satellite TV and Dolly the sheep.  And it's all a
mystery.  It is our responsibility to open the world of science to more
of our fellow citizens; to help them understand the great questions
science is seeking to answer and to help them see how those answers will
actually affect their lives and their children's lives in profoundly
important and positive ways.

          First, we have to make sure Americans understand the
contributions science and technology are making right now to the present
level of economic growth, something Dr. Baltimore referred to.  For
example, because of our early investments in the Internet, America now
leads the world in information technology, an industry that now accounts
for a third of our economic growth, although only 8 percent of our work
force; that generates jobs that pay 80 percent more than the private
sector average.

          If you look at that -- what does that mean to ordinary people,
and what does it mean to the nature of the economy we're living in?  I
have never told the American people that we had repealed the ordinary
laws of supply and demand, or the business cycle.  But we have stretched
them quite a lot.

          In February, next month, we will have the longest economic
expansion in the history of the United States -- outstripping even those
that required full mobilization for war.  Now, part of that is because
we have pursued, I believe, sound policies -- to get rid of the deficit;
to start running surpluses, the first back-to-back surpluses in 42
years; to keep our markets open, with 270 trade agreements; to argue, as
I have, that not only exports are benefited by open markets, we also
benefit from the imports, because they're a powerful brake on inflation
and allow us to continue to grow.

          But the real reason this thing keeps going on and on and on is
that -- all we did in the government was to set the conditions, and
provide the tools, for the American people to succeed.  The real reason
is the exponential growth in information technology, and how it is
rifling through every other sector of our economy and reinforcing the
material science revolution, which proceeded it by a few years, but
which continues to the present day.

          When I became President, there were only 50 sites on the
Worldwide Web -- 50.  When I became President -- that seemed like a long
time ago to the students, but the rest of you will know -- (laughter) --
it's just like yesterday.  There are now over 50 million.  Think of it.
In seven years, from 50 to over 50 million.  It is changing everything
about the way we work and live and relate to each other.

          I was in Northern California a few weeks ago with a lot of
really fascinating young people who work with E-bay -- a lot of you have
probably bought things, maybe you've even sold things on E-bay.  But for
example, one of the things I learned is that in addition to the
employees of E-bay, there are now 20,000 people whose primary source of
income is buying and selling on E-bay.  They do it for a living.  And
several of them -- not insubstantial number of them -- were on welfare
before they found a way to bring their entrepreneurial skills to bare by
trading on E-bay.  It has changed everything.

          So we have to say to people, if you like the fact that we have
the lowest unemployment and welfare rolls in 30 years, the lowest
minority unemployment rates ever recorded, the lowest female
unemployment rate in 40 years, the lowest poverty rates in 20 years, the
lowest single household poverty rate in 46 years, you have to understand
that all that, at least in large part, is because of the ability of the
discoveries of science and technology to rifle through our ordinary
lives.  And it is very, very important that all of us do a better job of

          I have proposed in this budget a 36 percent increase in
information technology research alone, so that researchers will be able
to tackle a wide array of other challenges.  How do we find, precisely,
the piece of information we're looking for in an ever-larger ocean of
raw data.  How do we design computers that are usable by everyone
including people with disabilities.

          One of the most fascinating relationships I've developed -- we
were talking on the plane ride out here about one of the great things
about being President is nearly anybody will come to talk to you --
once, anyway.  (Laughter.)  And we were talking about all the people I
had been privileged to meet in the last seven years.  You know, I have
developed quite a good personal friendship with Steven Hawking, who, as
all of you know, has lived longer with Lou Gehrig's disease, as far as
we know, than any person who's ever lived -- partly, I am convinced,
because of not only the size of his brain, but the size of his heart.
But it is fascinating to see what technology has permitted this man to

          Just a few years ago, he could have had the biggest brain in
the world, and no one could have known it, because it could not have
gotten out.  There is no speaking capacity, almost no movement left.  He
can just move his thumb, and hold in his hand this remarkable little
tracer that goes through a whole dictionary of words that he has, that
he runs through with rapid speed.  He picks the word he wants, puts the
sentences together, and then an automated voice tells you what he just

          How can we make it even easier for him?  How can we make it
even easier for other people?  This will be a huge issue.  Make no
mistake about it, the liberation of Americans with disabilities is also
in no small measure the product of the revolution in science and

          There are also other uses.  I read the other day that
manufacturers are soon going to introduce a refrigerator that can scan
the bar codes of empty packages and expired goods -- (laughter) -- and
order new groceries for you over the Internet.  (Laughter.)  Now,
everybody who's ever poured out a carton of bad milk will love this.
(Laughter.)  You don't have to smell your bad milk anymore.  It won't be
long before the computer will refuse to order what's bad for you --
(laughter) -- and only pick items off Dean Ornish's diet.  And then
we'll all be in great shape.  (Laughter.)

          The second thing I think we have to do is let Americans know
how investments in science and technology, broadly stated, will allow us
to lead longer, healthier lives.  Everybody knows now that you can put
money into cancer research -- and thank God we've discovered two of the
genes that are high predictors of breast cancer, for example, in the
last couple of years -- but we need for more Americans to understand why
we need a broad research agenda in science and technology, for the
health of Americans.  (Applause.)

          In the 20th century, American life expectancy went from 47
years to almost 77 years, thanks to penicillin and vaccines for many
childhood diseases.  We were talking the other day about the impact --
I'm old enough to remember the first polio vaccine.  And I remember how
our mothers herded us in line and made us stand there waiting for our
shot.  And it was like they were all holding their breath, praying and
hoping that we would get our shot before we got polio.  It's something
that young people today can hardly imagine, but it hung like a cloud
over the families of my parents' generation.  Now, we have this
incredible life expectancy -- today, the average American who lives to
be 65 has a life expectancy of 83 -- already.  And we are clearly on the
cusp of greater advances.

          Later this year, researchers expect to finish the first
complete sequencing of the genome -- all 3 billion letters and 80,000
genes that make up our DNA code.  Since so many diseases have a genetic
component, the completion of this project will clearly lead to a
revolution in our ability to detect, treat and prevent many diseases.
For example, patients with some forms of leukemia and breast cancer soon
may receive sophisticated new drugs that elegantly actually target the
precise cancer cells with little or no risk to healthy cells.  That will
change everything.

          Our new trove of genomic data may even allow us to identify
and cure most genetic diseases before a child is even born.  Most people
just take it as a given now that within the next few years, when young
mothers bring their babies home from the hospital, they will bring along
a genetic map of their children's makeup, what the problems are, what
the challenges are, what the strengths are.  It will be scary to some
extent, but it also plainly will allow us to raise our children in a way
that will enhance the length and quality of their lives.

          But it's important to recognize that we never could have had
the revolution in the genome project without the revolution in computer
science as well, that they intersected.  Research at the intersection
between biomedical research and engineering will also lead to amazing
breakthroughs.  Already, scientists are working on -- we've seen it on
television now -- an artificial retina to treat certain kinds of
blindness, and methods of directly stimulating the spinal cord to allow
people who are paralyzed to work.  Now, you think of that.

          Last year, for the first time, to give you an idea of the
impact of technology on traditional medical research, last year, for the
first time, medical researchers transplanted nerves from the limbs to
the spine of a laboratory animal that had its spine severed and achieved
movement in the lower limbs for the first time.  That had never happened

          Now, because of advances in the intersection between science
and engineering, we may not have to keep working on that.  We may
actually be able to program a chip that will stimulate the exact
movements that were prevented by the severing or the injury of a spine.
And all the people that we have seen hobbled by these terrible injuries
might be able to get up and walk.  Because there was medical research,
yes, but there was also research on the engineering, nonbiological
components of this endeavor.  We have to do a better job of explaining
that to the American people.

          Third, advances in science and technology are helping us to
preserve our environment in ways that preserve more sustainable and
widespread economic growth.  And that is very important.

          Let me just give you an example.  Not far from here in
Southern California, a couple years ago the Department of Energy,
working with the National Homebuilders and HUD, helped to construct a
moderate- and low-income housing community, with glass in the windows
that keeps out four or five times as much heat or cold, and lets in even
more light.  And that, coupled with the latest insulation technology and
the latest lighting in the house, enabled the houses to be marketed to
people of modest incomes, with the promise that their electric bills
would average 40 percent below what they would in a home of that size
built in the traditional manner.  I can tell you that after two years,
the power bills are averaging 65 percent less.  And we can't build
enough houses for the people that want them.

          The Detroit Auto Show this year is showcasing cars that, I'm
proud to say, were developed as part of our partnership for new
generation vehicles that the Vice President headed up, and we started
way back in '93.  We brought in the auto workers and the auto companies
and we said, look, instead of having a big fight about this, why don't
we work together and figure out how to use technology to dramatically
increase mileage.  And a lot of you are probably familiar -- they're
using fuel-injection engines, which cuts a lot of the greenhouse gas
emissions; some using developed mixed-fuel cars that start on
electricity, switch to fuel after you reach a certain stage, and then go
back to electricity when you slow down back to that speed, because 70
percent of the greenhouse gas emissions are used in starting and
stopping cars.

          And there are all kinds of other things being developed.  But
this year the Detroit Auto Show has cars making 70, 80 miles a gallon,
that are four-seater cars, that will be on the market in a couple of
years.  You can buy Japanese cars this year on the market that get about
70 miles to the gallon, but they're small two-seaters.  Last year I went
and saw cars that are 500 to 1,000 pounds lighter than traditional cars,
and score at least as well on all the damage tests -- again because of
the revolution in material science, with composite materials being used
in the cars.

          And the big thing that's coming up in this area is, before you
know it, I believe we will crack the chemical barriers to truly
efficient production of biomass fuels.  One of the reasons you see this
whole debate -- in the presidential campaign, if you're following it,
you know the big argument is, is it a waste of money to push ethanol or
not, if it takes seven gallons of gasoline to make eight gallons of
ethanol.  But they're on the verge of a chemical breakthrough that is
analogous to what was done when crude oil could be transferred
efficiently into gasoline.  And when that happens, you'll be able to
make eight gallons of biomass -- not just from corn, but from weeds,
from rice hulls, from anything -- for about one gallon of fuel.  That
will be the equivalent therefore, in environmental terms, of cars that
get hundreds of miles a gallon.  And the world, the environmental world,
will be changed forever.  And that's -- one-third of our greenhouse gas
emissions are in transportation.

          Now, I just want to kind of go off the script a little to
hammer this home, because big ideas in science matter.  And once you
make a big breakthrough, then thousands and thousands of things follow
that have immense practical significance.  But you must also know and
believe that being in the grip of a big idea that is wrong can be
absolutely disastrous.

          So today, in Washington and in much of the world, there is a
debate that goes something like this:  The overwhelming evidence of
science is that the climate is warming at an unsustainable rate due to
human activity.  And then there's this old idea, which says, well,
that's really too bad, but a country can't grow rich or stay rich and
sustain a middle-class lifestyle, unless every year it puts more
greenhouse gases into the atmosphere than it did the year before.  And
you certainly can't drastically cut them, and maintain your level of

          Our administration spent hundreds of thousands of dollars last
year complying with requests to appear before a House subcommittee that
believes that our passion about climate change is some sort of
subversive plot to wreck the American economy.  (Laughter.)  Either that
or -- you know, I've been reading too many kooky books or something.
(Laughter.)  They think it's just crazy.  Why?  Because they can't face
the fact that we would do anything to hurt the American economy, and
they really believed it would.  So I would argue to you that here is a
place where we're in the grip of an idea that is wrong.

          Our efforts to get India and China and other big countries
that will soon surpass us in greenhouse gas emissions to cooperate with
us, not in regulation, but in new technologies, to help them grow rich
differently, always keep running up against the barrier of suspicious
officials who believe somehow this is kind of an American plot to keep
them poor.  Why?  Because they're in the grip of an idea that isn't
right anymore.  It is simply not true that to grow rich, you have to put
more greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

          So again, I say we have to do a better job of explaining the
contribution that science and technology can make to saving the planet
and allowing us to still have prosperous lives -- and, I would argue, to
allow us to have more prosperous lives and better lives that would
otherwise be the case, certainly within 40 to 50 years, if we don't act
and act now.  This is profoundly important.  (Applause.)

          Finally, I think we have to do a better job of having an open
debate about the responsibilities that all these advances and
discoveries will clearly impose:  The same genetic revolution that can
offer new hope for millions of Americans could also be used to deny
people health insurance; cloning human beings; information technology
which helps to educate children and provide telemedicine to rural
communities could also be used to create disturbingly detailed profiles
of every move our citizens make on line.

          The federal government, I think, has a role to play in meeting
these challenges as well.  That's why we've put forward strict rules and
penalties to limit the use and release of medical records; why we've
worked with Congress to ban the cloning of human beings, while
preserving our ability to use the morally and medically acceptable
applications of cloning technology, which I believe are profoundly
important; why we're working with the Internet industry to ensure that
consumers -- consumers -- have control over how their personal
information is used.

          It's up to all of us to figure out how to use the new powers
that science and technology give us in a responsible way.  Just because
we can do something doesn't mean we should.  It is incumbent, therefore,
upon both scientists and public servants to involve the public in a
great debate to ensure that science serves humanity -- always -- and
never the other way around.

          On this campus nearly 70 years ago, Albert Einstein said,
"Never forget this, in the midst of your diagrams and equations:
concern for man himself and his fate must always form the chief interest
of all technical endeavors."  Today, at the dawn of this new millennium,
we see for all of you, particularly the young people in this audience,
an era of unparalleled promise and possibility.  Our relentless quest to
understand what we do not yet know, which has defined Americans from our
beginnings, will have more advances in the 21st century than at any
other time in history.  We must be wise as we advance.

          I told you earlier that the First Lady sponsored a Millennium
Evening with Vince Cerf and Professor Lander.  One of the most
interesting things he said about his genomic research confirmed not
other scientific research, but the teachings of almost every religion in
the world.  He said that, genetically, we are 99.9 percent the same.
And, he said, furthermore, that the genetic differences among
individuals within a given racial or ethnic group are greater than the
differences between groups as a whole -- suggesting that we are not only
our brothers' and sisters' keepers, but in fundamental genetic ways, we
are our brothers and sisters.

          And I leave you with this thought.  I think the supreme irony
of our time is that I can come here as President and have the high honor
of discussing these unfathomable advances wrought by the human
intellect, that have occurred and the even greater ones yet to occur, in
a world where the biggest social problem is the oldest demon of human
society -- we are still afraid of people who aren't like us.  And fear
leads to distrust, and distrust leads to dehumanization, and
dehumanization leads to violence.

          And it is really quite interesting that the end of the Cold
War has marked an upsurge in ethnic and racial and tribal and religious
hatred and conflict around the world; and that even in our own country
we see countless examples of hate crimes from people who believe that
others are different and, therefore, to be distrusted and feared and

          You have the power to put science and technology at work
advancing the human condition as never before.  Always remember to keep
your values at the core of what you do.  And tell every one of your
fellow citizens, and indeed people with whom you come in contact all
across the world, that every single scientific advance confirms over and
over again the most important facts of life -- our common humanity.

          Thank you very much.  (Applause.)

                     END             11:40 A.M. PST


Office of Science and Technology Policy
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Washington, DC 20502
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